2017年12月28日 星期四

關於"The Bauhaus 群英會 《》"Walter Gropius, Johannes Itten, Lyonel Feininger, and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, along with Gropius, comprised the faculty of the Bauhaus.



以前的書序或許比較有意思,譬如說,1979年翻譯 Robert Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture 時,夏鑄九先生的序為《一個熱淚盈眶的嘲弄者》,葉庭芬的譯序為《穿花蛺 (葉採用夾)蝶深深見, 點水蜻蜓款款飛》(杜甫詩)。

當然,現在我們容易知道這些得出處,譬如說,《曲江二首》之二    杜甫
    朝回日日典春衣, 每日江頭盡醉歸。
  酒債尋常行處有, 人生七十古來稀。
  穿花蛺蝶深深見, 點水蜻蜓款款飛。

    傳語風光共流轉, 暫時相賞莫相違。

那,姑且用末句作為The Bauhaus 群英會 》的引言好了。

關於The Bauhaus School,英語書籍數以百計,日本對於核心的 Bauhaus 叢書,更是全數翻譯。

"The Bauhaus"最簡單的歷史,可以參考Wikipedia 的條目及Peter Gay 的著作:

Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider, 1968
 《威瑪文化 : 一則短暫而璀璨的文化傳奇》,劉森堯譯,台北:立緒,2003,pp.168~76。

Gropius 所要傳達的,正是培根和笛卡爾以及啟蒙運動所注重的觀念:人必須和世界對抗並加以宰制,所以要治療現代的疾病乃是尋求更多更正確形式的現代化。 (《魏瑪文化》p.171)


所謂的"群英會",師生和相關人物,起碼數百人,而且多是我們不熟悉的德國政壇、藝界 (可以肯定,20世紀上半葉,柏林同巴黎一樣,都是世界級的中心)。這些人的作品和互動之資訊,說不定是天文數字的。


"群英會"的串場,可以是The Bauhaus School的師生中的任何人,端看你的際遇:寫The Bauhaus Group: Six Masters of Modernism的NICHOLAS FOX WEBER,以
Anni and Josef Albers 夫婦為主, Walter Gropius, Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe等四位為輔。


The Bauhaus Group一書中的 Paul Klee 和 Wassily Kandinsky,其實都是謎樣的人物。




.....實際的真實卻是:人複雜異常,無法被瞭解,其實,一個人最特殊最私密的內容,往往是不能寫的,會帶進棺材,......寫作的追求就是,透過無數細節和回憶,最大程度告訴讀者其中的一部分。金宇澄 https://www.openbook.org.tw/article/p-976

然而,像我們這類以第二、第三手資料的報告,可以選的串場人物可能以Paul Klee 為主,主要是他在 Bauhaus 的經歷超過十年,有諸都筆記。又有人"詳記"其生平。



《非功效的共通體》(La Communauté désoeuvrée,1986)是南希第一本處理共同體問題的著作。本書是對於南希的一些重大哲學論題的引論。南希把共同體的觀念追溯到經驗、論述和個體的概念中,並主張說,共同體的概念主導著現代思想。南希推翻「共同體」的一般理解,例如視之為不同獨立個體的一個集合,或者視之為一個實體化的社群實在(例如法西斯主義),而試圖重新定義「共同體」。
南希指出,人類企圖按照預先制定的定義來規劃社會,經常導致社會暴力和政治恐怖。而所謂「非功效的共同體」,則意味著共同體不是社會活動、經濟活動、甚至政治活動產生出來的結果,共同體不是一個「作品」(oeuvre)。強調「共同體」之「同」(同一性),必然導致一種同質化,從而失卻「通」(交互相通)。由此,真正意義上的共同體,必定是一個「共通體」,拒絕任何齊一化。南希的共通體概念,可以說是對海德格爾 「共在」(Mit-sein)概念的改造。~~Wikipedia 讓-呂克·南希Jean-Luc Nancy,1940年7月26日),法國哲學家




由於"The Bauhaus 群英會"的人數眾多,我們先決定此講的人數之上下界限。
當然,下限是1人,不管是"創始人" Walter Gropius 或其他"masters"。
不過,稍加擴張的方式是去查 E. N. Gombrich 的 《藝術的故事》中提到的。已雨芸翻譯的第12版 (台北:聯經,1989)為例,書中簡單提到Walter Gropius 設計的德劭 Bauhaus。藝術家介紹3位:Paul Klee、Wassily Kandinsky和 Lyonel Feininger 等3人。
E. N. Gombrich 另一本談應用藝術的The Sense of Order (1979) ,只提到 Klee.






 Walter Gropius 與工藝聯盟  the Werkbund 的角色:

 the office and factory building for the Werkbund Exhibition (1914) in Cologne.

找人:




1913

In 1913, Gropius published an article about "The Development of Industrial Buildings," which included about a dozen photographs of factories and grain elevators in North America.

1914
Concept and Development of the State Bauhaus By Walter Gropius
遺澤:William Morris, Henry van de Velde, Olbrich, Behrens ...and others in Germany, and finally the German Werkbund. 1915

Henry van de Velde, the master of the Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in Weimar was asked to step down in 1915 due to his Belgian nationality.

Teachers taken over from the Weimar Institute of Fine Arts: Max Thedy 1919-20 Otto Fröhlich 1919-20 Richard Engelmann 1919-20 5. (Dezember 1868 in Bayreuth; † 11. September 1966 in Kirchzarten)

Walther Klemm 1919-20 
Newly appointed teachers: LyonelFeininger 1919-25 Lyonel Feininger 1925-32 ...







1919

Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933, 



In 1919 Swiss painter Johannes Itten, German-American painter Lyonel Feininger, and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, along with Gropius, comprised the faculty of the Bauhaus.


Georg Muche ( 1895 – 1987) 

1920



Gropius and Alma divorced in 1920. (Alma had by that time established a relationship with Franz Werfel, whom she later married.) 

Walter Gropius invited 

Georg Muche 


Muche in 1919 to join the Bauhaus faculty in Weimar. At the urging of Lyonel Feininger, he accepted, becoming the youngest Master of Form. At Bauhaus, he headed the weaving workshop from 1919 to 1925 and directed the preliminary course from 1921 to 1922. Muche married Elsa (El) Franke, who was a Bauhaus student, in 1922.[5] After 1922 his style evolved from pure abstraction towards more figurative and organic leanings, a sort of lyric surrealism.[6]Muche was in charge of the 1923 Bauhaus Exhibition, their first major exhibition,[5] for which he designed an experimental house known as "Haus am Horn". It was constructed in 1923 as the first practical implementation of the new Bauhaus building style. Such principles were key influences on 20th-century architecture.[8] Haus am Horn was designed to showcase economical housing, providing a functional design using prefabricated materials for quick and inexpensive construction.[9] The house, which demonstrates a keen understanding of the use of space, has been called "a true artwork of the realization of abstract monumental beauty".[10] In 1996, Bauhaus and its sites in Weimar and Dessau were declared a 20th-century World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.[8] Muche was the leading proponent of the Bauhaus architectural group. In 1926 he, along with Richard Paulick, designed the innovative Stahlhaus (Steel House) at Dessau-Törten.[5][7] From 1925 to 1927 he headed the Bauhaus' weaving workshop in Dessau.


1920.11.25
Klee  (40歲) 受邀加入:Walter Gropius、Lyonel FeiningerRichard EngelmannGerhard Marcks  ,Johannes Itten,Georg Muche Walther Klemm 

1921


Walter Gropius's Monument to the March Dead (1921) 

1922
joined in 1922 by Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky
1923



On 16 October 1923, Gropius married Ilse (later changed to Ise  ~1983) Frank, and they remained together until his death in 1969

1924


1925

「muche bauhaus」の画像検索結果
Lyonel Feininger, Wassily Kandinsky, Oskar Schlemmer, Georg Muche and Paul Klee in Paul Klee's studio at the Bauhaus Weimar, 1925


Bauhaus (built 1925–26) in Dessau, 
Dessau from 1925 to 1932 
1926




1927



1928



1929



1930

沒有留言:

張貼留言